Facebook Old Generated URLs Still Vulnerable to Open Redirect Attacks & A New Open Redirect Web Security Bugs

pentest


Facebook Old Generated URLs Still Vulnerable to Open Redirect Attacks & A New Open Redirect Web Security Bugs




Domain:
http://www.facebook.com



“Facebook is an online social networking service headquartered in Menlo Park, California. Its website was launched on February 4, 2004, by Mark Zuckerberg with his college roommates and fellow Harvard University students Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz and Chris Hughes. The founders had initially limited the website’s membership to Harvard students, but later expanded it to colleges in the Boston area, the Ivy League, and Stanford University. It gradually added support for students at various other universities and later to high-school students. Since 2006, anyone who is at least 13 years old is allowed to become a registered user of the website, though the age requirement may be higher depending on applicable local laws. Its name comes from a colloquialism for the directory given to it by American universities students." (Wikipedia)



“Facebook had over 1.44 billion monthly active users as of March 2015.Because of the large volume of data users submit to the service, Facebook has come under scrutiny for their privacy policies. Facebook, Inc. held its initial public offering in February 2012 and began selling stock to the public three months later, reaching an original peak market capitalization of $104 billion. As of February 2015 Facebook reached a market capitalization of $212 Billion." (Wikipedia)





Discover:
Wang Jing, Division of Mathematical Sciences (MAS), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences (SPMS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore. (@justqdjing)
http://www.tetraph.com/wangjing/

 



(1) General Vulnerabilities Description:

(1.1) Two Facebook vulnerabilities are introduced in this article.

Facebook has a computer cyber security bug problem. It can be exploited by Open Redirect attacks. This could allow a user to create a specially crafted URL, that if clicked, would redirect a victim from the intended legitimate web site to an arbitrary web site of the attacker’s choosing. Such attacks are useful as the crafted URL initially appear to be a web page of a trusted site. This could be leveraged to direct an unsuspecting user to a web page containing attacks that target client side software such as a web browser or document rendering programs.


Since Facebook is trusted by large numbers of other websites. Those vulnerabilities can be used to do “Covert Redirect" to other websites such as Amazon, eBay, Go-daddy, Yahoo, 163, Mail.ru etc.

 

(1.1.1)

One Facebook Open Redirect vulnerability was reported to Facebook. Facebook adopted a new mechanism to patch it. Though the reported URL redirection vulnerabilities are patched. However, all old generated URLs are still vulnerable to the attacks. Section (2) gives detail of it.

The reason may be related to Facebook’s third-party interaction system or database management system or both. Another reason may be related to Facebook’s design for different kind of browsers.

 

(1.1.2) Another new Open Redirect vulnerability related to Facebook is introduced, too. For reference, please read section (3).

The vulnerabilities can be attacked without user login. Tests were performed on IE (9.0) of Windows 8, Firefox (24.0) & Google Chromium 30.0.1599.114 ubuntu0.14.04.1.1064 (64-bit) of Ubuntu (12.10),Safari 6.1.6 of Mac OS X Lion 10.7.



(1.2) Facebook’s URL Redirection System Related to “*.php" Files

All URLs’ redirection are based on several files, such l.php, a.php, landing.php and so on.

The main redirection are based on file “l.php" (Almost all redirection links are using it right now).

For file “l.php", one parameter “h" is used for authentication. When it mentions to file “a.php", parameter “eid" is used for authentication. All those two files use parameter “u" for the url redirected to. In some other files such as “landing.php", parameters such as “url", “next" are used.

<1>For parameter “h", two forms of authentication are used.

<a>h=HAQHyinFq

<b>h=hAQHalW1CAQHrkVIQNNqgwhxRWLNsFVeH3auuImlbR1CgKA

<2>For parameter “eid", one form of authentication is used.

<a>eid=AQLP8sRq6lbU0jz0lARx9A9uetB6FIF1N2-Yjj_ePj0d_ezubjstZeDo6qDsalKVJwy6uDb_hQ-9tBsA2dVoQRq0lniOu0os_gPe3gY5l8lYblhQSwBtdvgjXjNqaxLZMYoasr3vv46tFsh1fL7q4kjT2LFw52dnJWd4SE8qc0YuPWfgPeQywgM2wl0CoW-lftWkr2dX0dLcytyHjXnvhKfVS_pQBllszUzsPENxE6EuZ-53Lh188o56idnfyyk2L58pE7C94PF-za4ZVB0qbuA2EnPcSJI-7oIiIJmIhifHe0CYTzG512-Z_heN44VlyJHevhS9auAR8-lFCAIlYymnT_Qiwp92RxjNOfBypBvszQUrvB6PH3fANn1prfMBVm4RD_GFel14KVDS5USswbTOTkL3sZNhHUqqPHwBwU3JFePMMuwsfesigH85B_AxCsXUIWN7klKGSq8bPPsKSHttsa9hkkMpSfRKL7D_xwW4dU2xlmfGWil7jYRJmwfbOeF0zujk1FRBuM757tbfFMav-J-K9npbdrDrCuUVqV__Tf7CGZ89nPl-M2d09pE9enJj0OBXOaSXZX16LKaYnv1Wh4GKme7C-EOunITxyQtp1zy-48Uaz9mxO2x4bw7sBDfzDStF_Al8_0SMjWNTh-J38rBHAgT96X-dPFI43HU3x3fVymE9szrclBpvTaSfYezatgMzf77s3lQrQAMSlwSSRIzRuoFvQBmWKT0T5ZFgH5ykhYKhNMiKj577UO5g2Ojm-_-KKF4N_DBuG5R-I6EOSlhok2xUkpKVDnDcxZFTLxGmx5xc56J5kZLjJ96wnF2fH09Q19Qc2aU3xYFlEFrKjrlLpwGyOyCDx7_z7y1O4Efqew3Fa0Cb9s6Kk2jpLF5XEIaYzzXOLAffxXG6icBJVovb9RPmiZ5s9dKYYotLol68_X04O05bEvVccPEh-IQwX_VTMt3f23be2MECEqR2l1A1ZkJx4qP00GI1pZhU_CXAnjSaTNmtaINRUeSsLNEZZsPwpWJMfeeGSwuof9krC05eSWjO0jH9tua0KteMYhj8i-3dwSBp4f7nMcFwH5ltfCLhMCYNB8rxgzcAczyhLIo2UY-3FSaJXBZ0lvuZBvnj7myUnyc2lCcy-fWh93MRRaJrrinjtfr9fDSMHM9Cja5xi0eG3Vs0aClnWbeJZA79TvmYt7E53HfwGuv5-EJOqRh3cwZF-53uPHA73ikUk3xTApjQunJM4uIBhpy7iBIgn_OXXo3X03YUJtJcDuC20ocJbZ310VHliox5tYZF2oiMaOfgo9Y9KeqgsrJgwPCJeif4aB0Ne4g_oM_Tuqt2pXbdgoCawHIApF087eFKJqejp0jpEkJerXPyK-IqsD_SQfIm_2WJSkzwzATwQKs

 

 

 


(2) Vulnerability Description 1:

(2.1) A security researcher reported two Open Redirect vulnerabilities to Facebook in 2013. The following are the two links reported.

Though a new mechanism was adopted. However, all old generated redirections still work by parameter “h" and “eid".

 

 

(2.2) A website was used for the following tests. The website is “http://www.tetraph.com/“. Suppose this website is malicious.

(2.2.1)

<1>First test

<a>file: “l.php"

<b>URL parameter: “u"

<c>authentication parameter: “h"

<d>form: “h=HAQHyinFq".

<e>The authentication has no relation with all other parameters, such as “s".

Examples:

URL 1:

Redirect Forbidden:

Redirect Works:

 

URL 2:

Redirect Forbidden:

Redirect Works:

 

 

(2.2.2)

<2>Second test. It is the same situation as above.

<a>file: “l.php",

<b>url parameter “u"

<c>authentication parameter: “h"

<d>form: “h=hAQHalW1CAQHrkVIQNNqgwhxRWLNsFVeH3auuImlbR1CgKA".

<e>The authentication has no relation to all other parameters, such as “env", “s".

 

Examples:

URL 1:

Redirect Forbidden:

 

URL 2:

Redirect Forbidden:

Redirect Works:

 

 

 

(3) Facebook File “a.php" Open Redirect Security Vulnerability

 

(3.1)

<a>file: “a.php"

<b>parameter “u"

<c> authentication parameter: “eid"

<d> form: “eid=5967147530925355409.6013336879369.AQKBG5nt468YgKeiSdgExZQRjwGb9r6EOu-Uc5WPvi-EVHEzadq8YSrgSvUzbMmxKPPfTgM-JrPff7tN38luc-8h16lxL0Gj_4qs1-58yWgXirMH4AEf8sOEsZc5DTx7yFndgODvD5NrC-314BIj4pZvMhlljXv89lHRH6pBgyGGVm-oWBDIF8CuRER1f5ZGbKdsiUcBISdWTninVzvBdW1mZY0SWzqT21fZmhgVKtdkRf5l_pag7hAmotFK9HI5XHfGicWVqzRyTNiDIYjyVjTv4km2FOEp7WP3w65aVUKP_w".

<e>The authentication has no relation to all other parameters, such as “mac", “_tn_".

Examples:

Vulnerable URL:

https://www.facebook.com/a.php?u=http%3A%2F%2Ffb-nym.adnxs.com%2Ffclick%3Fclickenc%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fbs.serving-sys.com%252FBurstingPipe%252FadServer.bs%253Fcn%253Dtf%2526c%253D20%2526mc%253Dclick%2526pli%253D8782431%2526PluID%253D0%2526ord%253D%257BCACHEBUSTER%257D%26cp%3D%253Fdi%253DzGxX6INl-T9QvRSibN_3P5qZmZmZmfk_UL0Uomzf9z_ObFfog2X5P_WPPCuD-to_CKEeLew3cQIQkc9SAAAAAHQcDQB2BQAAKAcAAAIAAAD4iq8AanMCAAAAAQBVU0QAVVNEAGMASABq4DoFka4BAgUCAQUAAIgAkinLswAAAAA.%252Fcnd%253D%252521qQYdPgjeqqYBEPiVvgUY6uYJIAA.%252Freferrer%253Dfacebook.com%252F&mac=AQJllyaGzLYoRoQz&__tn__=%2AB&eid=5967147530925355409.6013336879369.AQKBG5nt468YgKeiSdgExZQRjwGb9r6EOu-Uc5WPvi-EVHEzadq8YSrgSvUzbMmxKPPfTgM-JrPff7tN38luc-8h16lxL0Gj_4qs1-58yWgXirMH4AEf8sOEsZc5DTx7yFndgODvD5NrC-314BIj4pZvMhlljXv89lHRH6pBgyGGVm-oWBDIF8CuRER1f5ZGbKdsiUcBISdWTninVzvBdW1mZY0SWzqT21fZmhgVKtdkRf5l_pag7hAmotFK9HI5XHfGicWVqzRyTNiDIYjyVjTv4km2FOEp7WP3w65aVUKP_w

POC:

 

(3.2) Facebook Login Page Covert Redirect Security Vulnerability

Vulnerable URL Related to Login.php Based on a.php:

https://www.facebook.com/login.php?next=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.facebook.com%2Fa.php%3Fu%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.rp.edu.sg%252Fopenhouse2014%252F%253Futm_source%253Dfacebook%2526utm_medium%253Dcpc%2526utm_campaign%253Dopenhouse2014%26mac%3DAQKyRHClixA20iGL%26__tn__%3D%252AB%26eid%3DAQLAHC7szSXhT3FaEBXe5YFsOC0kEM4nN9PlVovdilvuzROStFXoYqptlKpcJAzHNTLpxWAIrmJYsR6RVG_Htk6pgT7Iol6lWHDJvn7Cg5sqigvE_eVS895Eh6fSwxH3fgfWcNDrEl5_lFgRbrJtC71R68rW_VXS9QCN7Po9wTWDnbyZTaXawdrdQyibryvA56Spr5GcUDUboRFxy8YSr2ahUV_goDAQA3OKmCACEn8CmyMrOT5gZq3iwusysdchRxLIv5N82-GMTiDxXXgkDYf1P7XwvklWpfy_cEItZzV5v0P7fRZB3qiq_RDx9jhEzndlJhUJL2aWE0ldPmGKGz9xWyvPaPLOwzBo23GQbpj2ZN_tw9B9tz2l3tGIN1yegd_Wf6PSFIZOuBXfZILvmILcxg3qz4dHx1fmgPZBpf_34mPnMEkgZqbT2WeV_GZKz8RDIg88D3vrmwyMwWxeh3xyGuddjZUjOUjPCUwrgSrWZK3XHRA7TA7tWIsQ4X1bsjx9c72mm8bZmmRBRJwqOcjsW0QEVETs_Cs9pS9QBkgX8yVPJCHuk1v_xkj4EHHH9sNP7a4GRs8olklBTKhCcJ908sVrQVT2I-cQYw2SVU9hWaWWjX2AGt3WpdT2kx6SIPoPQpX5cIC4Lcfaa7EcZFBnoQPv3mR5BNHRFTh_6Qvr01BrCG3Fv5VeDeXhM8cHk6VuBtj5smz0ZeGT5JWvub5ORJ4xzVN0zAW8V4qiKiVFKTEFMZASaZFon41VFCbhxkX0Bi62Ko64PY6uP64tCMWh6yX2o0JMc0mJWFJRp1695OCKgLXf0udRyWDESTyYgJXIlxecCmlwCEbleAsE-wtDXNOfDTXOzApr1sZO_58FBRaw-K4Z2VRXLir5mrdXTKnM1Y4rDDqGZur9G7LfuXrCr5oR1J5LJ8sVupHqsiN7-UqdakiEEIBq750KxVjaAdCyqJp_5EJ-yVMK3f2pMX7cQ2Lw6u434hHimuLN9VDPLkpSiMlPOa8RkarDSred73IfQiv-PluegYDfunZFxj1KvcAlzhVZsL-a52hJmXrOrzKuV0hyZaBLtAIo6AEoXXV30D-6iraSUphkOFzYt3ah6oRrmXLQZKm2E8Cuag5d_rAnwvIr98dn4OSa8Z4MCZemI3uH8cjxr86aE046uTA_Hm1GjYM5l7wkpHknHI8QR2q5Cioo2h6WiUO-jsIFkQ4XFgAd5IUCcAbQukXdC4GJzl18iaN8wkylsTk8aVBn6G1xZadSL0b5R3NgsYfQUVtV0g9slnOLNkgq0NLMAk0kWFs

POC:

https://www.facebook.com/login.php?next=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.facebook.com%2Fa.php%3Fu%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.stackoverflow.com%26mac%3DAQKyRHClixA20iGL%26__tn__%3D%252AB%26eid%3DAQLAHC7szSXhT3FaEBXe5YFsOC0kEM4nN9PlVovdilvuzROStFXoYqptlKpcJAzHNTLpxWAIrmJYsR6RVG_Htk6pgT7Iol6lWHDJvn7Cg5sqigvE_eVS895Eh6fSwxH3fgfWcNDrEl5_lFgRbrJtC71R68rW_VXS9QCN7Po9wTWDnbyZTaXawdrdQyibryvA56Spr5GcUDUboRFxy8YSr2ahUV_goDAQA3OKmCACEn8CmyMrOT5gZq3iwusysdchRxLIv5N82-GMTiDxXXgkDYf1P7XwvklWpfy_cEItZzV5v0P7fRZB3qiq_RDx9jhEzndlJhUJL2aWE0ldPmGKGz9xWyvPaPLOwzBo23GQbpj2ZN_tw9B9tz2l3tGIN1yegd_Wf6PSFIZOuBXfZILvmILcxg3qz4dHx1fmgPZBpf_34mPnMEkgZqbT2WeV_GZKz8RDIg88D3vrmwyMwWxeh3xyGuddjZUjOUjPCUwrgSrWZK3XHRA7TA7tWIsQ4X1bsjx9c72mm8bZmmRBRJwqOcjsW0QEVETs_Cs9pS9QBkgX8yVPJCHuk1v_xkj4EHHH9sNP7a4GRs8olklBTKhCcJ908sVrQVT2I-cQYw2SVU9hWaWWjX2AGt3WpdT2kx6SIPoPQpX5cIC4Lcfaa7EcZFBnoQPv3mR5BNHRFTh_6Qvr01BrCG3Fv5VeDeXhM8cHk6VuBtj5smz0ZeGT5JWvub5ORJ4xzVN0zAW8V4qiKiVFKTEFMZASaZFon41VFCbhxkX0Bi62Ko64PY6uP64tCMWh6yX2o0JMc0mJWFJRp1695OCKgLXf0udRyWDESTyYgJXIlxecCmlwCEbleAsE-wtDXNOfDTXOzApr1sZO_58FBRaw-K4Z2VRXLir5mrdXTKnM1Y4rDDqGZur9G7LfuXrCr5oR1J5LJ8sVupHqsiN7-UqdakiEEIBq750KxVjaAdCyqJp_5EJ-yVMK3f2pMX7cQ2Lw6u434hHimuLN9VDPLkpSiMlPOa8RkarDSred73IfQiv-PluegYDfunZFxj1KvcAlzhVZsL-a52hJmXrOrzKuV0hyZaBLtAIo6AEoXXV30D-6iraSUphkOFzYt3ah6oRrmXLQZKm2E8Cuag5d_rAnwvIr98dn4OSa8Z4MCZemI3uH8cjxr86aE046uTA_Hm1GjYM5l7wkpHknHI8QR2q5Cioo2h6WiUO-jsIFkQ4XFgAd5IUCcAbQukXdC4GJzl18iaN8wkylsTk8aVBn6G1xZadSL0b5R3NgsYfQUVtV0g9slnOLNkgq0NLMAk0kWFs





Those vulnerabilities were reported to Facebook in 2014 and they have been patched.





Several other similar products 0-day vulnerabilities have been found by some other bug hunter researchers before. Facebook has patched some of them. “The Full Disclosure mailing list is a public forum for detailed discussion of vulnerabilities and exploitation techniques, as well as tools, papers, news, and events of interest to the community. FD differs from other security lists in its open nature and support for researchers’ right to decide how to disclose their own discovered bugs. The full disclosure movement has been credited with forcing vendors to better secure their products and to publicly acknowledge and fix flaws rather than hide them. Vendor legal intimidation and censorship attempts are not tolerated here!" All the fllowing web securities have been published here, Buffer overflow, HTTP Response Splitting (CRLF), CMD Injection, SQL injection, Phishing, Cross-site scripting, CSRF, Cyber-attack, Unvalidated Redirects and Forwards, Information Leakage, Denial of Service, File Inclusion, Weak Encryption, Privilege Escalation, Directory Traversal, HTML Injection, Spam. Large number of Facebook bugs were published here. FD also publishes suggestions, advisories, solutions details related to Open Redirect vulnerabilities and cyber intelligence recommendations.








(4) Amazon Covert Redirect Security Vulnerability Based on Facebook

Since Facebook is trusted by large numbers of other websites. Those vulnerabilities can be used to do “Covert Redirect" to other websites such as Amazon.


Domain:
http://www.amazon.com


“American electronic commerce company with headquarters in Seattle, Washington. It is the largest Internet-based retailer in the United States. Amazon.com started as an online bookstore, but soon diversified, selling DVDs, Blu-rays, CDs, video downloads/streaming, MP3 downloads/streaming, software, video games, electronics, apparel, furniture, food, toys and jewelry. The company also produces consumer electronics—notably, Amazon Kindle e-book readers, Fire tablets, Fire TV and Fire Phone — and is a major provider of cloud computing services. Amazon also sells certain low-end products like USB cables under its inhouse brand AmazonBasics. Amazon has separate retail websites for United States, United Kingdom & Ireland, France, Canada, Germany, The Netherlands, Italy, Spain, Australia, Brazil, Japan, China, India and Mexico. Amazon also offers international shipping to certain other countries for some of its products. In 2011, it had professed an intention to launch its websites in Poland and Sweden." (Wikipedia)

 

 

The vulnerability exists at “redirect.html?" page with “&location" parameter, e.g.

 

(4.1) When a user is redirected from Amazon to another site, Amazon will check parameters “&token". If the redirected URL’s domain is OK, Amazon will allow the reidrection.

However, if the URLs in a redirected domain have open URL redirection vulnerabilities themselves, a user could be redirected from Amazon to a vulnerable URL in that domain first and later be redirected from this vulnerable site to a malicious site. This is as if being redirected from Amazon directly.

One of the vulnerable domain is,
http://www.facebook.com

 

(4.2) Use one of webpages for the following tests. The webpage address is “http://www.inzeed.com/kaleidoscope“. Suppose it is malicious.

Vulnerable URL:

POC:

 

 

 

 

 

Related Articles:
http://seclists.org/fulldisclosure/2015/Jan/22
http://permalink.gmane.org/gmane.comp.security.fulldisclosure/1428
http://lists.openwall.net/full-disclosure/2015/01/12/1
http://marc.info/?l=full-disclosure&m=142104333521454&w=4
http://diebiyi.com/articles/security/facebook-open-redirect/
https://www.facebook.com/essaybeans/posts/570476126427191
http://germancast.blogspot.de/2015/06/facebook-web-security-0day-bug.html
https://mathfas.wordpress.com/2015/01/11/facebook-open-redirect/
http://essaybeans.lofter.com/post/1cc77d20_7300027
http://qianqiuxue.tumblr.com/post/120750458855/itinfotech-facebook-web-security-0day-bug
https://www.facebook.com/permalink.php?story_fbid=472994806188548&id=405943696226993
https://mathfas.wordpress.com/2015/01/11/facebook-open-redirect/
http://www.tetraph.com/blog/phishing/facebook-open-redirect/
http://itinfotech.tumblr.com/post/120750347586/facebook-web-security-0day-bug
http://ittechnology.lofter.com/post/1cfbf60d_72fd108
http://russiapost.blogspot.ru/2015/06/facebook-web-security-0day-bug.html
https://twitter.com/tetraphibious/status/606676645265567744
https://plus.google.com/u/0/110001022997295385049/posts/hb6seddG561
http://whitehatpost.blog.163.com/blog/static/24223205420155501020837/
http://www.inzeed.com/kaleidoscope/computer-security/facebook-open-redirect/







廣告

Google DoubleClicK System Bugs Could Be Used by Spammers

887

 

Google DoubleClick.net (Advertising) System URL Redirection Vulnerabilities Could Be Used by Spammers

 

Although Google does not include Open Redirect vulnerabilities in its bug bounty program, its preventive measures against Open Redirect attacks have been quite thorough and effective to date.

 

However, Google might have overlooked the security of its DoubleClick.net ​advertising system. After some test, it is found that most of the redirection URLs within DoubleClick.net are vulnerable to Open Redirect vulnerabilities. Many redirection are likely to be affected. This could allow a user to create a specially crafted URL, that if clicked, would redirect a victim from the intended legitimate web site to an arbitrary web site of the attacker’s choosing. Such attacks are useful as the crafted URL initially appear to be a web page of a trusted site. This could be leveraged to direct an unsuspecting user to a web page containing attacks that target client side software such as a web browser or document rendering programs.

 

These redirections can be easily used by spammers, too.

 

Some URLs belong to Googleads.g.Doubleclick.net are vulnerable to Open Redirect attacks, too. While Google prevents similar URL redirections other than Googleads.g.Doubleclick.net. Attackers can use URLs related to Google Account to make the attacks more powerful.

 

Moreover, these vulnerabilities can be used to attack other companies such as Google, eBay, The New York Times, Amazon, Godaddy, Yahoo, Netease, e.g. by bypassing their Open Redirect filters (Covert Redirect). These cyber security security bug problems have not been patched. Other similar web and computer attacks will be published in the near future.

 

 

Discover and Reporter:
Jing Wang, Division of Mathematical Sciences (MAS), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences (SPMS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore. (@justqdjing)
http://www.tetraph.com/wangjing/

 

 

 

(1) Background Related to Google DoubleClick.net.

(1.1) What is DoubleClick.net?

DoubleClick is a subsidiary of Google which develops and provides Internet ad serving services. Its clients include agencies, marketers (Universal McCann, AKQA etc.) and publishers who serve customers like Microsoft, General Motors, Coca-Cola, Motorola, L’Oréal, Palm, Inc., Apple Inc., Visa USA, Nike, Carlsberg among others. DoubleClick’s headquarters is in New York City, United States.

 

DoubleClick was founded in 1996 by Kevin O’Connor and Dwight Merriman. It was formerly listed as “DCLK" on the NASDAQ, and was purchased by private equity firms Hellman & Friedman and JMI Equity in July 2005. In March 2008, Google acquired DoubleClick for US$3.1 billion. Unlike many other dot-com companies, it survived the dot-com bubble and focuses on uploading ads and reporting their performance." (Wikipedia)

 

(1.2) Reports Related to Google DoubleClick.net Used by Spammers

(1.2.1)

Google DoublClick.net has been used by spammers for long time. The following is a report in 2008.

 

“The open redirect had become popular with spammers trying to lure users into clicking their links, as they could be made to look like safe URLs within Google’s domain."
https://www.virusbtn.com/blog/2008/06_03a.xml?comments

 

(1.2.2)

Mitechmate published a blog related to DoubleClick.net spams in 2014.

 

Ad.doubleclick.net is recognized as a perilous adware application that causes unwanted redirections when surfing on the certain webpages. Actually it is another browser hijacker that aims to distribute frauds to make money.Commonly people pick up Ad.doubleclick virus when download softwares, browse porn site or read spam email attachments. It enters into computer sneakily after using computer insecurely.Ad.doubleclick.net is not just annoying, this malware traces users’ personal information, which would be utilized for cyber criminal."
http://blog.mitechmate.com/remove-ad-doubleclick-net-redirect-virus/

 

(1.2.3)

Malwarebytes posted a news related to DoubleClick.net malvertising in 2014.

 

 

(2) DoubleClick.net System URL Redirection Vulnerabilities Details.

The vulnerabilities can be attacked without user login. Tests were performed on Microsoft IE (10.0.9200.16750) of Windows 8, Mozilla Firefox (34.0) & Google Chromium 39.0.2171.65-0 ubuntu0.14.04.1.1064 (64-bit) of Ubuntu (14.04),Apple Safari 6.1.6 of Mac OS X Lion 10.7.

 

Used webpages for the following tests. The webpage address is “http://securitypost.tumblr.com/“. We can suppose that this webpage is malicious.

 

 

(2.1) Vulnerable URLs Related to Googleads.g.Doubleclick.net.

(2.1.1)

Some URLs belong to googleads.g.doubleclick.net are vulnerable to Open Redirect attacks. While Google prevents similar URL redirection other than googleads.g.doubleclick.net.

 

Vulnerable URLs:

 

POC:

 

Attackers can make use of the following URLs to make the attacks more powerful, i.e.

 

POC:

 

 

(2.1.2)

While Google prevents similar URL redirection other than googleads.g.doubleclick.net , e.g.

 

 

 

(2.2) Vulnerable URLs Related to DoubleClick.net.

Vulnerable URLs 1:

 

POC:

 

Vulnerable URLs 2:

 

POC:

 

Vulnerable URLs 3:

 

POC:

 

 

We can see that Google DoubleClick.net has Open Redirect vulnerabilities and could be misused by spammers.

 

 

 

(2.3)

 

Several other similar products 0-day vulnerabilities have been found by some other bug hunter researchers before. Google has patched some of them. BugTraq is a full disclosure moderated mailing list for the *detailed* discussion and announcement of computer security vulnerabilities: what they are, how to exploit them, and how to fix them. The below things be posted to the Bugtraq list: (a) Information on computer or network related security vulnerabilities (UNIX, Windows NT, or any other). (b) Exploit programs, scripts or detailed processes about the above. (c) Patches, workarounds, fixes. (d) Announcements, advisories or warnings. (e) Ideas, future plans or current works dealing with computer/network security. (f) Information material regarding vendor contacts and procedures. (g) Individual experiences in dealing with above vendors or security organizations. (h) Incident advisories or informational reporting. (i) New or updated security tools. A large number of the fllowing web securities have been published here, Buffer overflow, HTTP Response Splitting (CRLF), CMD Injection, SQL injection, Phishing, Cross-site scripting, CSRF, Cyber-attack, Unvalidated Redirects and Forwards, Information Leakage, Denial of Service, File Inclusion, Weak Encryption, Privilege Escalation, Directory Traversal, HTML Injection, Spam. It also publishes suggestions, advisories, solutions details related to Open Redirect vulnerabilities and cyber intelligence recommendations.

 

 

 

(3) Google DoubleClick.net Can Adversely Affect Other Websites.

At the same time, Google DoubleClick.net can be used to do “Covert Redirect" to other websites, such as Google, eBay, The New York Times, etc.(Bypass other websites’ Open Redirect filters)

 

 

(3.1) Google Covert Redirect Vulnerability Based on Googleads.g.doubleclick.net

Domain:
google.com

 

“Google is an American multinational technology company specializing in Internet-related services and products. These include online advertising technologies, search, cloud computing, and software. Most of its profits are derived from AdWords, an online advertising service that places advertising near the list of search results. Google was founded by Larry Page and Sergey Brin while they were Ph.D. students at Stanford University. Together they own about 14 percent of its shares but control 56 percent of the stockholder voting power through supervoting stock. They incorporated Google as a privately held company on September 4, 1998. An initial public offering followed on August 19, 2004. Its mission statement from the outset was “to organize the world’s information and make it universally accessible and useful," and its unofficial slogan was “Don’t be evil". In 2004, Google moved to its new headquarters in Mountain View, California, nicknamed the Googleplex. The corporation has been estimated to run more than one million servers in data centers around the world (as of 2007). It processes over one billion search requests and about 24 petabytes of user-generated data each day (as of 2009). In December 2013, Alexa listed google.com as the most visited website in the world. Numerous Google sites in other languages figure in the top one hundred, as do several other Google-owned sites such as YouTube and Blogger. Its market dominance has led to prominent media coverage, including criticism of the company over issues such as search neutrality, copyright, censorship, and privacy." (Wikipedia)

 

Vulnerable URL:

 

POC:

 

More Details:

 

 

(3.2) eBay Covert Redirect Vulnerability Based on Googleads.g.doubleclick.net

Domain:
ebay.com

 

“eBay Inc. (stylized as ebay) is an American multinational corporation and e-commerce company, providing consumer to consumer & business to consumer sales services via Internet. It is headquartered in San Jose, California, United States. eBay was founded by Pierre Omidyar in 1995, and became a notable success story of the dot-com bubble. Today, it is a multi-billion dollar business with operations localized in over thirty countries. The company manages eBay.com, an online auction and shopping website in which people and businesses buy and sell a broad variety of goods and services worldwide. In addition to its auction-style sales, the website has since expanded to include “Buy It Now" shopping; shopping by UPC, ISBN, or other kind of SKU (via Half.com); online classified advertisements (via Kijiji or eBay Classifieds); online event ticket trading (via StubHub); online money transfers (via PayPal) and other services. It is not a free website, but charges users an invoice fee when sellers have sold or listed any items." (Wikipedia)

 

Vulnerable URL:

 

POC:

 

More Details:

 

 

(3.3) The New York Times (Nytimes.com) Covert Redirect Vulnerability Based on Google Doubleclick.net

Domain:
nytimes.com

 

“The New York Times (NYT) is an American daily newspaper, founded and continuously published in New York City since September 18, 1851, by the New York Times Company. It has won 114 Pulitzer Prizes, more than any other news organization. The paper’s print version has the largest circulation of any metropolitan newspaper in the United States, and the second-largest circulation overall, behind The Wall Street Journal. It is ranked 39th in the world by circulation. Following industry trends, its weekday circulation has fallen to fewer than one million daily since 1990. Nicknamed for years as “The Gray Lady", The New York Times is long regarded within the industry as a national “newspaper of record". It is owned by The New York Times Company. Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr., (whose family (Ochs-Sulzberger) has controlled the paper for five generations, since 1896), is both the paper’s publisher and the company’s chairman. Its international version, formerly the International Herald Tribune, is now called the International New York Times." (Wikipedia)

 

Vulnerable URL:

 

POC:

 

More Details:

 

These vulnerabilities were reported to Google earlier in 2014. But it seems that Google has yet taken any actions. All of the vulnerabilities are still not patched.

 

 

 

 

Related Posts:
http://seclists.org/fulldisclosure/2014/Nov/28
https://cxsecurity.com/issue/WLB-2014110106
http://permalink.gmane.org/gmane.comp.security.fulldisclosure/1192
https://www.mail-archive.com/fulldisclosure%40seclists.org/msg01307.html
http://computerobsess.blogspot.com/2014/11/google-doubleclicknetadvertising-system.html=
http://www.techenet.com/2014/12/doubleclick-do-google-pode-ser-vulneravel-a-ataques/
https://computertechhut.wordpress.com/2014/11/12/google-doubleclick-spam/
http://mathpost.tumblr.com/post/120760828940/tetraph-google-doubleclick-net-advertising
http://tetraph.com/security/open-redirect/google-doubleclick-netadvertising-system
https://www.facebook.com/essayjeans/posts/838922772865543
https://plus.google.com/u/0/+essayjeans/posts/Y12x6gXfyFX
http://mathstopic.blogspot.com/2015/06/google-doubleclick-spam.html
http://itsecurity.lofter.com/post/1cfbf9e7_72fe79f
https://twitter.com/essayjeans/status/606726247578636288
http://tetraph.tumblr.com/post/120760676767/google-doubleclick-net-advertising-system-url
https://itinfotechnology.wordpress.com/2014/11/18/google-doubleclick-spam/
https://www.facebook.com/permalink.php?story_fbid=945171075538075
http://guyuzui.lofter.com/post/1ccdcda4_7305f25
http://tetraph.blog.163.com/blog/static/23460305120155534216326/
http://www.inzeed.com/kaleidoscope/spamming/google-doubleclick-spam/

 

 

Alibaba Taobao OAuth 2.0 Service Covert Redirect Web Security Bugs (Information Leakage & Open Redirect)

1688-taobao

 

Alibaba Taobao OAuth 2.0 Service Covert Redirect Web Security Bugs (Information Leakage & Open Redirect)




(1) Domain:
taobao.com

 

 

“Taobao (simplified Chinese: 淘宝网; traditional Chinese: 淘寶網; pinyin: Táobǎo Wǎng; literally: “searching for treasure website") is a Chinese website for online shopping similar to eBay and Amazon that is operated in China by Alibaba Group. Founded by Alibaba Group on May 10, 2003, Taobao Marketplace facilitates consumer-to-consumer (C2C) retail by providing a platform for small businesses and individual entrepreneurs to open online stores that mainly cater to consumers in Chinese-speaking regions (Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan) and also abroad. With around 760 million product listings as of March 2013, Taobao Marketplace is one of the world’s top 10 most visited websites according to Alexa. For the year ended March 31, 2013, the combined gross merchandise volume (GMV) of Taobao Marketplace and Tmall.com exceeded 1 trillion yuan." (Wikipedia)

 

 

 

 

(2) Vulnerability Description:

Taobao web application has a computer security problem. Hacker can exploit it by Covert Redirect cyber attacks.



The vulnerabilities can be attacked without user login. Tests were performed on Microsoft IE (10.0.9200.16750) of Windows 8, Mozilla Firefox (34.0) & Google Chromium 39.0.2171.65-0 ubuntu0.14.04.1.1064 (64-bit) of Ubuntu (14.04),Apple Safari 6.1.6 of Mac OS X Lion 10.7.

 

 

 

 

(2.1) Vulnerability Detail:

Taobao’s OAuth 2.0 system is susceptible to Attacks. More specifically, the authentication of parameter “&redirct_uri" in OAuth 2.0 system is insufficient. It can be misused to design Open Redirect Attacks to Taobao.

 

At the same time, it can be used to collect sensitive information of both third-party app and users by using the following parameters (sensitive information is contained in HTTP header.),

“&response_type"=sensitive_info,token…

“&scope"=get_user_info%2Cadd_share…

 

It increases the likelihood of successful Open Redirect Attacks to third-party websites, too.

 

The vulnerabilities occurs at page “/authorize?" with parameter “&redirect_uri", e.g.
https://oauth.taobao.com/authorize?client_id=21263967&response_type=code&state=O2CRSF7bdf17633d9f4934bb7f4e937eef6d59&redirect_uri=http://store.tv.sohu.com/web/login.do%3Fbru%3Dhttp%3A%2F%2Ftetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fseasons%2F%25E7%25A5%25AD%25E6%2598%25A5.html [1]

 

 

Before acceptance of third-party application:

When a logged-in Taobao user clicks the URL ([1]) above, he/she will be asked for consent as in whether to allow a third-party website to receive his/her information. If the user clicks OK, he/she will be then redirected to the URL assigned to the parameter “&redirect_uri".

 

If a user has not logged onto Taobao and clicks the URL ([1]) above, the same situation will happen upon login.

 

 

After acceptance of third-party application:

A logged-in Taobao user would no longer be asked for consent and could be redirected to a webpage controlled by the attacker when he/she clicks the URL ([1]).

 

For a user who has not logged in, the attack could still be completed after a pop-up page that prompts him/her to log in.

 

 

 

(2.1.1) Taobao would normally allow all the URLs that belong to the domain of an authorized third-party website. However, these URLs could be prone to manipulation. For example, the “&redirect_uri" parameter in the URLs is supposed to be set by the third-party websites, but an attacker could change its value to make Attacks.

 

Hence, a user could be redirected from Taobao to a vulnerable URL in that domain first and later be redirected from this vulnerable site to a malicious site unwillingly. This is as if the user is redirected from Taobao directly. The number of Taobao’s OAuth 2.0 client websites is so huge that such Attacks could be commonplace.

 

Before acceptance of the third-party application, Taobao’s OAuth 2.0 system makes the redirects appear more trustworthy and could potentially increase the likelihood of successful Open Redirect Attacks of third-party website.

 

Once the user accepts the application, the attackers could completely bypass Taobao’s authentication system and attack more easily.

 

 

 

(2.2) Used one of webpages for the following tests. The webpage is “https://computerpitch.wordpress.com/“. Can suppose it is malicious and contains code that collect sensitive information of both third-party app and users.

 

Below is an example of a vulnerable third-party domain:
sohu.com

 

Vulnerable URL in this domain:
http://store.tv.sohu.com/web/login.do?bru=http%3A%2F%2Ftetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fseasons%2F%25E7%25A5%25AD%25E6%2598%25A5.html

 

Vulnerable URL from Taobao that is related to sohu.com:
https://oauth.taobao.com/authorize?client_id=21263967&response_type=code&state=O2CRSF7bdf17633d9f4934bb7f4e937eef6d59&redirect_uri=http://sohu.com

 

POC:
https://oauth.taobao.com/authorize?client_id=21263967&response_type=code&state=O2CRSF7bdf17633d9f4934bb7f4e937eef6d59&redirect_uri=http://store.tv.sohu.com/web/login.do%3Fbru%3Dhttp%3A%2F%2Ftetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fseasons%2F%25E7%25A5%25AD%25E6%2598%25A5.html

 

 

 

 

(2.3) The following URLs have the same vulnerabilities.
https://login.taobao.com/member/login.jhtml?sign=8uBo%2FBShyXsFVd4q%2FREkfg%3D%3D&timestamp=2014-03-19+09%3A24%3A22&sub=true&style=mini_top&need_sign=top&full_redirect=true&from=mini_top&from_encoding=utf-8&TPL_redirect_url=https%3A%2F%2Foauth.taobao.com%2Fauthorize%3Fstate%3D1%26response_type%3Dcode%26client_id%3D21112101%26redirect_uri%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.paidai.com%252Fuser%252Foauth_taobao.php

 

 

POC Video:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aZVCZK03-Rw



Blog Detail:
http://tetraph.blogspot.com/2014/05/alibaba-taobao-oauth-20-covert-redirect.html







(3) What is Covert Redirect?

Covert Redirect is a class of security bugs disclosed in May 2014. It is an application that takes a parameter and redirects a user to the parameter value without sufficient validation. This often makes use of Open Redirect and XSS (Cross-site Scripting) vulnerabilities in third-party applications.

 

Covert Redirect is also related to single sign-on, such as OAuth and OpenID. Hacker may use it to steal users’ sensitive information. Almost all OAuth 2.0 and OpenID providers worldwide are affected. Covert Redirect can work together with CSRF (Cross-site Request Forgery) as well.



 

Discover and Reporter:
Jing Wang, Division of Mathematical Sciences (MAS), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences (SPMS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore.
(@justqdjing)
http://tetraph.com/wangjing/









Related Articles:
http://tetraph.com/security/covert-redirect/alibaba-taobao-oauth-2-0-covert-redirect
http://www.inzeed.com/kaleidoscope/covert-redirect/alibaba-taobao-bug
http://computerobsess.blogspot.com/2014/05/alibaba-taobao-service-exploit.html
https://twitter.com/essayjeans/status/558976811573321728
https://webtechwire.wordpress.com/2014/06/06/taobao-vulnerability/
http://inzeed.tumblr.com/post/119493913816/securitypost-itinfotech-continuan-los
http://essayjeans.lofter.com/post/1cc7459a_7069892
http://securityrelated.blogspot.com/2014/05/alibaba-taobao-service-exploit.html
http://tetraph.blog.163.com/blog/static/2346030512014463745630/
http://diebiyi.com/articles/security/covert-redirect/alibaba-taobao-oauth-2-0
https://hackertopic.wordpress.com/2014/06/01/alibaba-taobao-bug/

 

 

 

===========

 

 


阿里巴巴 淘宝 网站 OAuth 2.0 隐蔽重定向 (Covert Redirect) 网络安全漏洞 (信息泄漏 & 公开重定向)




(1) 域名:

taobao.com



" 淘宝网是亚太地区较大的网络零售商圈,由阿里巴巴集团在2003年5月10日投资创立。淘宝网现在业务跨越C2C(个人对个人)、B2C(商家对个人)两 大部分。截止2014年,淘宝网注册会员超5亿人每天有超过1.2亿的活跃用户,在线商品数达到10亿件,淘宝网和天猫平台的交易额总额超过了1.5万 亿。" (百度百科)







(2) 漏洞描述:

阿里巴巴 淘宝 网站有有一个计算机安全问题,黑客可以对它进行隐蔽重定向 (Covert Redirect) 网络攻击。




这 个漏洞不需要用户登录,测试是基于微软 Windows 8 的 IE (10.0.9200.16750); Ubuntu (14.04) 的 Mozilla 火狐 (Firefox 34.0) 和 谷歌 Chromium 39.0.2171.65-0; 以及苹果 OS X Lion 10.7 的 Safari 6.16。




 


(2.1) 漏洞细节:

Taobao 的 OAuth 2.0 系统可能遭到攻击。更确切地说, Taobao 对 OAuth 2.0 系统的 parameter “&redirect_uri“ 验证不够充分。可以用来构造对 Taobao 的 URL跳转 攻击。

 

 

与此同时,这个漏洞可以用下面的参数来收集第三方 App 和 用户 的敏感信息(敏感信息包含在 HTTP header里),

“&response_type"=sensitive_info,token,code…

“&scope"=get_user_info,email…

 

 

它也增加了对第三方网站 URL跳转 攻击的成功率。

 

 

漏洞地点 “/authorize?",参数"&redirect_uri", e.g.
https://oauth.taobao.com/authorize?client_id=21263967&response_type=code&state=O2CRSF7bdf17633d9f4934bb7f4e937eef6d59&redirect_uri=http://store.tv.sohu.com/web/login.do%3Fbru%3Dhttp%3A%2F%2Ftetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fseasons%2F%25E7%25A5%25AD%25E6%2598%25A5.html [1]

 

 

 

同意三方 App 前:

当一个已经登录的 Taobao 用户点击上面的 URL ([1]), 对话框会询问他是否接受第三方 App 接收他的信息。如果同意,他会被跳转到 参数 “&redirect_uri" 的 URL。

 

 

如果没有登录的Taobao 用户点击 URL ([1]), 他登录后会发生同样的事情。

 

 

 

同意三方 App 后:

已经登录的 Taobao 用户 不会再被询问是否接受 三方 App。当他点击 URL ([1]) 时,他会被直接跳转到攻击者控制的页面。

 

 

如果 Taobao 用户没有登录,攻击依然可以在要求他登录的Taobao的对话框被确认后完成(这个过程不会提示任何和三方 App 有关的内容)。

 

 

 

 

(2.1.1) Taobao 一般会允许属于已被验证过得三方 App domain 的所有 URLs。 然而,这些 URLs 可以被操控。比如,参数 “&redirect_uri" 是被三方 App 设置的,但攻击者可以修改此参数的值。

 

 

因此,Taobao 用户意识不到他会被先从 Taobao 跳转到第三方 App 的网页,然后从此网页跳转到有害的网页。这与从 Taobao 直接跳转到有害网页是一样的。

 

 

因为 Taobao 的 OAuth 2.0 客户很多,这样的攻击可以很常见。

 

 

在同意三方 App 之前,Taobao 的 OAuth 2.0 让用户更容易相信被跳转的页面是安全的。这增加了三方 App 被 URL跳转 攻击的成功率。

 

 

同意三方 App 后, 攻击者可以完全绕过 Taobao 的 URL跳转 验证系统。

 

 

 

 

(2.2) 用了一个页面进行了测试, 页面是 “http://lifegreen.lofter.com/“. 可以假定它是有害的,并且含有收集三方 App 和用户敏感信息的 code。

 

 

下面是一个有漏洞的三方 domain:
sohu.com

 

 

这个 domain 有漏洞的 URL:
http://store.tv.sohu.com/web/login.do?bru=http%3A%2F%2Ftetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fseasons%2F%25E7%25A5%25AD%25E6%2598%25A5.html

 

 

Taobao 与 sohu.com 有关的有漏洞的 URL:
https://oauth.taobao.com/authorize?client_id=21263967&response_type=code&state=O2CRSF7bdf17633d9f4934bb7f4e937eef6d59&redirect_uri=http://sohu.com

 

 

 

POC:
https://oauth.taobao.com/authorize?client_id=21263967&response_type=code&state=O2CRSF7bdf17633d9f4934bb7f4e937eef6d59&redirect_uri=http://store.tv.sohu.com/web/login.do%3Fbru%3Dhttp%3A%2F%2Ftetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fseasons%2F%25E7%25A5%25AD%25E6%2598%25A5.html



(3) 什么是隐蔽重定向?

隐蔽重定向 (Covert Redirect) 是一个计算机网络安全漏洞。这个漏洞发布于 2014年5月。漏洞成因是网络应用软件对跳转到合作者的跳转没有充分过滤。这个漏洞经常利用第三方网站 (包括合作网站) 的公开重定向 (Open Redirect) 或者 跨站脚本漏洞 (XSS – Cross-site Scripting) 问题。

隐蔽重定向也对单点登录 (single sign-on) 有影响。最初发布的是对两款常用登录软件 OAuth 2.0 和 OpenID 的影响。黑客可以利用真实的网站进行网络钓鱼,从而窃取用户敏感信息。几乎所用提供 OAuth 2.0 和 OpenID 服务的网站都被影响。隐蔽重定向也可以和 跨站请求伪造 (CSRF – Cross-site Request Forgery) 一起利用。

 

 

漏洞发布:
王晶 (Wang Jing)
新加坡南洋理工大学物理与数学学院数学系 (@justqdjing)
http://www.tetraph.com/wangjing/

 

 

 

相关文章:
http://tetraph.com/security/covert-redirect/alibaba-taobao-oauth-2-0-covert-redirect
http://www.inzeed.com/kaleidoscope/covert-redirect/alibaba-taobao-bug
http://computerobsess.blogspot.com/2014/05/alibaba-taobao-service-exploit.html
https://twitter.com/essayjeans/status/558976811573321728
http://webtechhut.blogspot.com/2014/06/taobao-exploit.html
http://inzeed.tumblr.com/post/119493913816/securitypost-itinfotech-continuan-los
http://essayjeans.lofter.com/post/1cc7459a_7069892
https://infoswift.wordpress.com/2014/06/28/taobao-hack/
http://tetraph.blog.163.com/blog/static/2346030512014463745630/
http://diebiyi.com/articles/security/covert-redirect/alibaba-taobao-oauth-2-0
https://hackertopic.wordpress.com/2014/06/01/alibaba-taobao-bug/